Welcome To Ana's Blog

Minggu, 03 Juli 2011

Article I: 5 Reasons To Home School Your Child
Bundle them off to school with a list of instructions, and wait with an anxious heart until they return. Homeschooling gives you more control over the influences that affect your child. The growth and development of your child is removed from the realm of the unknown. You, and you alone can decide what your child needs to do or learn.
Tailoring to suit the the curriculum needs and interests of the child is one of the most obvious benefits of homeschooling Individual attention is another salient benefit of homeschooling. For instance, if your child needs more time to learn. Math, then they can reduce the time for English lessons. There are no fixed hours of learning per subject. This means that a child has the advantage of assigning a greater number of hours to the subject that seems tough WITHOUT any additional pressure. The amount of time needed to learn each subject will depend on the abilities and interests of the child. The schooling of the child becomes an extended family activity. Parents get involved in every step of the learning procedure. Field trips and experiments become family activities. Thus, the child receives more quality time with parents. The entire family shares games, chores and projects. Family closeness becomes the focus. The child is also free of any negative peer pressure while making choices and decisions. Competition is limited when it comes to homeschooling. The child does not need to prove his ability with regard to other children. Your child's confidence remains intact. Since parents have a deep understanding of their child, they can plan the learning program to pique the child's interest. It is also possible to intersperse difficult tasks with fun activities. A tough hour of Algebra can be followed by a trip to the nearest museum. Learning becomes fun. Parents can also tailor the curriculum to suit the learning style of the child. Some children learn through reading, while others need to write, and still others need to see objects in action.
Homeschooling allows parents to take control over the moral and religious learning of the child. Parents have the flexibility to incorporate their beliefs and ideologies into the child's curriculum. There is no confusion in the child's mind either because there is no variation between what is being taught and what is being practiced.
Lastly, more and more parents are getting disillusioned with the public school system. They believe that their children are being pushed too hard or too little. Other areas of concern pertain to discipline and ethics can make the school system less welcome. Many believe the educational philosophy of grouping children solely on the basis of their age is a mistake. Some parents themselves have unhappy memories of their own public school experience that motivates them to opt for homeschooling when it comes to their own children. Homeschooling is the best way to teach a child if you have the time, the ability and the interest to follow through with their education. After all, nobody can understand or appreciate your child more than yourself.














Excecise 1, Read the article and complete them with these sentences !


1. it comes to their own children
2. Making choices and decisions
3. no confusion in the child's mind
4. believe that their children are being pushed too hard
5. nobody can understand or appreciate you
6. what is being taught and what is being practiced.
7. to suit the the curriculum needs and interests
8. make the school system less welcome

a) Parents get involved in every step of the learning procedure. Field trips and experiments become family activities. Thus, the child receives more quality time with parents. The entire family shares games, chores and projects. Family closeness becomes the focus. The child is also free of any negative peer pressure while…………….
b) Many believe the educational philosophy of grouping children solely on the basis of their age is a mistake. Some parents themselves have unhappy memories of their own public school experience that motivates them to opt for homeschooling when it……………
c) Homeschooling allows parents to take control over the moral and religious learning of the child. Parents have the flexibility to incorporate their beliefs and ideologies into the child's curriculum. There is no confusion in the child's mind either because there is no variation between….
d) Tailoring………………………. of the child is one of the most obvious benefits of homeschooling Individual attention is another salient benefit of homeschooling.
e) more and more parents are getting disillusioned with the public school system. They …………………………hard or too little. Other areas of concern pertain to discipline and ethics can make the school system less welcome.













Article 2: Back to school – A motivational investment that cannot be afford to be ignored
School days are back! Children are getting prepared to go to school after their summer vacation. There’s lots of offer on school bags, notebooks and other stationery items. Tips are being offered on managing kids in the net and in newsletters. ‘Back to school’ pangs are here everywhere among all the stakeholders involved in child’s education. No doubt, that it is a hard pressing current problem in the field of education that itself is repetitive in nature.
To be honest, I am neither a great educationist nor highly experienced researcher in the field of education. But, I am a person who is interested in such things and try my bit to address such concerns. It all depends on how we view the entire thing as such. To me ‘Back to School’ appears as a motivational investment that could take the teaching-learning process a long way. From such perspective, I have shared my thoughts below.
I am sure that the teachers, parents and above all the children will have a challenging time in the beginning. Children will be back to school after spending time with their grandparents/sight -seeing trip/summer camps/time well spent with their family members and so on. Suddenly they are about to embark back the journey of schooling and hence would face certain discomforts like getting back to routine, waking early in the morning, more study hours, examinations, report cards and so on.
This is where we as teachers and parents could help the child and also in turn ourselves.
Here are some tips for teachers
• Accept that the child needs time to get back to the routine
• Make week -1 of their school more joyous by conducting structured activities.
• Provide opportunities for children to make greetings cards wishing each other a great schooling year ahead
• Tell story tales related to New Year beginning at school
• Introduce yourselves and share your likes, dislikes and hobbies
• Provide opportunities for students to share their likes, dislikes and hobbies
• Organize kinesthetic activities for students
• Take students on a school walk and orient/re-orient them on various things to be followed across various school zones Ex: Toilets, assembly, activity room etc.,
• Give activities for students to decorate their classes with pictures of their work, the places they had visited during vacation time, their favorites etc.,
• Posters with their palm prints together to give a feeling of togetherness
• Share your first day of school experiences with your children
Here are some tips for Parents
• Believe that the child is experiencing difficulty in experiencing the sudden change in their routine and does not want to be out of school.
• Talk to them about the things they like in their school
• Talk to them about the friends they had met
• Wake up while you wake them in the morning and be with them
• Ask them to make a poster of their day –I in school and paste it in their reading room
• Give them some empty stickers and ask them to write the various emotions they face during their schooling and stick it around the poster
I am sure by now you would have started getting more fantastic and wonderful ideas to make every child’s first day experience beautiful J and make it a motivational investment for their further learning.




Exercise 2 match the word basic the article
Match the tips for teachers or parents to motivated the student from the text

Tips for teacers to motivated the student

Accept that the child needs time to get back to the routine
Talk to them about the things they like in their school
Posters with their palm prints together to give a feeling of togetherness
Wake up while you wake them in the morning and be with them
Believe that the child is experiencing difficulty in experiencing the sudden change in their routine and does not want to be out of school.
Take students on a school walk and orient/re-orient them on various things to be followed across various school zones Ex: Toilets, assembly, activity room etc.,
Tell story tales related to New Year beginning at school
Ask them to make a poster of their day –I in school and paste it in their reading room
Share your first day of school experiences with your children
Introduce yourselves and share your likes, dislikes and hobbies
Organize kinesthetic activities for students

Tips for parents to motivated the child

































Article 3: WARNING: Math Instruction In US Can Harm Children
As Dr. Miller states: “Math is the most poorly taught subject in school, particularly in elementary school. Research has proven that elementary teachers are uncomfortable with math—not only with teaching math, but with using mathematical principles in their own lives. In fact, many elementary teachers suffer from math anxiety themselves. Therefore, most elementary teachers are not good influences on the mathematical learning and attitudes of their students.” Point is, the teachers themselves are in a way special needs people, made so by the math instruction they received just 10 or 15 years before.
I’m glad to have this hook, as they say in the newspaper business. Dr. Miller’s views give context and credence for several things I’ve been working on recently. I like cutting to the bottom line, so let me sum up my conclusions this way: math instruction is a failure, a scandal, and I suspect a con. I had thought that Whole Word (which keeps so many children from reading) was the paradigm for awfulness. But the gimmicks devised by our Education Establishment to teach arithmetic are a close second. The more I looked at New Math, which came and went around 1965, the more I felt it was just a pile of nonsense. More to the point now, I realized that it never went away. What the Education Establishment called Reform Math, circa 1990, was just a warmed-over version of New Math, and still just as awful. Reform Math, which is actually a dozen separate curricula, was based on the so-called Standards created by the National Council of Teachers of Math. The NCTM constantly badgers the states to make them adopt these Standards. Now the federal government has jumped in with its National Standards and Common Core Standards, which are more of the same. Think Sub-Standards.
Figuring out the bloodlines and distinctions is not that relevant. The main thing to realize is that New Math was based on the idea of teaching little children how to do arithmetic by teaching them about set theory, Boolean algebra, base-8, and many other things not traditionally learned until high school or college. This is the lethal sophistry that the NCTM has tried-- with depressing success-- to insinuate into every classroom. I believe this sophistry is dangerous and should be stopped immediately. Children should learn basic arithmetic, using every trick, game, song and digital technology you can throw at the problem. But kids shouldn’t go on to the more advanced stuff until they master the simple stuff.
Last week I added another math article to my site “53: Education Establishment Hates Math,” which extends some of these points. Almost simultaneously, as a thought experiment, I wrote a piece for hubpages.com called “Price’s Easy Arithmetic For First Graders". I suggest you could teach all of first-grade arithmetic using only US coins. This was just to make the point that all the bewildering complexity is in no way helpful or necessary. Now I find myself working on a even bigger article which will be published in a week or two. You can see I became quite obsessed with the teaching of arithmetic. In examining this stuff, you are able to look into the heart of darkness. And math is hot now. There are a lot of stories in the daily press about the National Standards, and how the government is throwing money at the states to make them capitulate. Even worse, local newspapers (mine in Norfolk is particularly egregious) push for the wrong side. You can go on the internet (corestandards.org) and read some of the empty prose. Many states are fighting back; I urge you to encourage your governor to resist.
Here is just a single Standard from a single state for the FIRST GRADE. The thing to note is the hostility of the prose; and try to imagine the teachers Dr. Miller talked about explaining to anyone what they themselves are supposedly doing.











Exercise 3 fill the blank sentence from the article
1. Research has proven that elementary teachers are………………(1)not only with teaching math, but with using ……………….(2)in their own lives. In fact, many elementary teachers suffer from math anxiety themselves. Therefore, most elementary teachers are not good influences on the mathematical learning and attitudes of their students.
2. The more I looked at New Math, which came and went around ……..(1) the more I felt it was just a pile of nonsense. More to the point now, I realized that it never went away. What the Education Establishment called Reform Math, circa …….(2), was just a warmed-over version of New Math, and still just as awful.
3. I believe this sophistry is dangerous and should be stopped immediately. Children should learn basic ……………..….,…………….….,……………..and……………you can throw at the problem. But kids shouldn’t go on to the more advanced stuff until they master the simple stuff.
4. There are a lot of stories in the daily press about …………….(1),and how the government is throwing money at the states to make them capitulate. Even worse, local newspapers (………………….(2)is particularly egregious) push for the wrong side.
5. The thing to note is the…………….; and try to imagine the teachers Dr. Miller talked about explaining to anyone what they themselves are supposedly doing.



















Article 4: Children With ADHD Need to Learn How It Looks and Feels to Pay Attention
attention? What do you look like when paying attention? How do you feel when you pay attention? All too often, students with ADD and ADHD can’t answer these questions.
In order to really get control of their ability to devote the right amount of attention to a task at the right time, students must understand how their body looks and feels when they pay attention.
The following role playing activity can encourage students’ insights by drawing their attention to the body language that illustrates strong listening. Have your child play the role of the speaker, reading two or three paragraphs from a book or article. The parent will take the role of the listener. As you listen to what your child is reading, talk about the behaviors that show you are listening (see below for a list), and use a digital recorder to record your observations.
Play the recorder for your child and model each behavior again as it is mentioned on the recording. Draw your child’s attention to each aspect of your behavior that illustrates you are paying attention. Now it’s time to change roles. You are the speaker and your child is the listener. Play the recorder and ask your child to demonstrate the behaviors he hears on the recording. Practice until your child shows he understands and can model the correct behaviors. Make a list of attentive behaviors and post in your child’s room to refer to during homework and put a copy in the front of every notebook or binder. How does attentive behavior look to others?
The following signs of good attention are easy to demonstrate and observe:
• Eyes focused on the speaker and/or the visual material (such as textbook, board, etc.)
• Sitting upright, feet on floor, hands on desk or in lap
• Head level or tilted slightly to one side
• Response or reaction is “on topic” and appropriate to the context (e.g., taking notes during note taking sessions)
• Physical activity (hands or body) assists understanding (many students with ADHD use note-taking or doodling to increase attentiveness rather than keeping their hands and body completely still)













Excersise 4 write true or false this statement from the text!
 In order to really get control of their ability to devote the right amount of attention to a task at the right time, students not must understand how their body looks and feels when they pay attention.
 Draw your child’s attention to each aspect of your behavior that illustrates you are paying attention.
 Practice until your child shows he understood and can model the correct behaviors.
 Response or reaction is “on topic” and appropriate to the conten(e.g., taking notes during note taking sessions)
 Physical activity (hands or body) assists understanding (many students with ADHD use note-taking or doodling to increase attentiveness rather than keeping their hands and body completely still)



















Article 5 : Conspiracy? Why Would Anyone Think There Might Be A Conspiracy??
I would argue that the biggest mystery in American history is how did the public schools get so messed up? Wouldn’t we like to answer that question?
The moment you start looking deeply into this mystery, you’re going to come up against a gang of ideologues led by John Dewey, the Father of American Education. He and his buddies were socialists. They believed in transforming the country, one way or another. So look where we are. We are now staring into the teeth of a conspiracy.

A lot of people are upset by this word, but I don’t see any way to avoid it. Starting by 1910, every time Dewey and another professor at Teachers College had a meeting, they were plotting to insinuate their ideas into every public school in America. No Congress voted; no president approved. Dewey, who was probably a Fabian socialist, believed in working quietly from the inside; and that’s what he did. I’m fascinated by the conspiracy question because I don’t think we can fix the public schools unless we first confront what actually happened to them. Here’s my short take: a lot of socialist educators said the heck with knowledge, facts and all that academic stuff; the big job is to turn children into future socialists. End of story.

However, if you do start talking about conspiracy, one common response is, no, no, we don’t need any crazy theories like that. The problems in the schools are clearly due to lazy parents, difficult kids, the Internet, drugs, sex, television, rock ‘n roll, etc., etc. Why go poking around in the past? Dewey’s been dead forever. My sense is that many people are content to stay on the surface and to blame the victims. They don’t want to rock the status quo or blame any of their nominal allies. They don’t want to look at root causes. Well, in this case, the political beliefs of our Education Establishment a century ago are the root causes. These people were basically what we would today call European socialists. Traditional, academic education was not their main priority. Once they committed to a secret agenda that the public did not ask for or approve of, then you are witnessing a conspiracy. What else can it be called?


Excersise 5 macth these sentence with the paragraph!


sentence paragraph

No Congress voted; no president approved. Dewey, who was probably a Fabian socialist, believed in working quietly from the inside; and that’s what he did. Paragraph 1
They don’t want to rock the status quo or blame any of their nominal allies. They don’t want to look at root causes. Paragraph 2
I would argue that the biggest mystery in American history is how did the public schools get so messed up? Paragraph 3
Traditional, academic education was not their main priority. Paragraph 4
We are now staring into the teeth of a conspiracy. Paragraph 2
They believed in transforming the country, one way or another. Paragraph 3
Here’s my short take: a lot of socialist educators said the heck with knowledge, facts and all that academic stuff; the big job is to turn children into future socialists. Paragraph 4




































Article 6: Primary education




Primary school in open air. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts of Bucharest, around 1842. Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 5–7 years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries.
Globally, around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising. Under the Education for All programs driven by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have separate middle schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education, are mostly referred to as primary schools. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school.











Exercise 6. Look at the article again and try to complete this sentence.
Primary school in open air. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts of Bucharest, around 1842. Primary (or elementary) education consists(1)…..……., structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries.
Globally, around 89% of primary-age children are(2),……………. and this proportion is rising. Under the Education for All programs driven by(3)….…….., most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems(4)………………, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education, are. Primary schools(5)………….. in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school.


















Article 7 : Secondary education
In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States, Canada and Australia primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 1-13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession.
The emergence of secondary education in the United States did not happen until 1910, caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories (for instance, the emergence of electrification), that required skilled workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high schools were created and the curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better prepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work. This proved to be beneficial for both the employer and the employee, because this improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient, which lowered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educational attainment.
In Europe, the grammar school or academy existed from as early as the 16th century; public schools or fee paying schools, or charitable educational foundations have an even longer history.










Article 8: Higher education



Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage, or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees.
Higher education includes teaching, research and social services activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Higher education generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy.















Article 9 Paralegal Studies
This fall, students are enrolled in colleges and universities throughout the nation in order to pursue their dreams, utilize their talents, and improve the world for future generations. If you are one of these students and you are unsure about your career path, you may be interested in learning about the numerous opportunities that a paralegal career has to offer
 .Advance your written and analytical skills
Aside from earning a degree, you must also improve your writing and analytical thinking skills throughout your college career in order to succeed as a paralegal. By sharpening your skills in organization, project management, and attention to detail, you can easily transition from being a paralegal student to having a career as a paralegal professional once you walk across the podium and receive your degree.
 Network
While you are still enrolled in a college or university paralegal studies program, you should strive to meet as many people in the legal field as you can. By joining a paralegal association, you will have an opportunity to meet various legal professionals who will provide you with career tips, resources, and new networking opportunities. Networking contacts can offer advice and recommendations, and can also support you during your search for new opportunities to use your talents, education, and past work experiences to positively impact the legal industry. Networking can help you pursue more business relationships, mentorships, and new jobs.
 Law firms utilize paralegal talent for project management services
Project management services are in constant demand by law firms. As a result, while handling large discovery requests, attorneys often seek help from their paralegals, who will supervise document review, especially at firms that do not have permanent project management teams or large discovery litigation.
 Paralegals operate facilities that create Web-based review systems
In 2007, the federal rules that governed electronic discovery (eDiscovery) were changed, driven by continued growth in litigation, as well as the explosion of electronic data in recent years. Paralegals are now needed to operate the remote, modular facilities that create paperless, Web-based review systems, as a process-driven model for electronic discovery has been widely adopted, featuring the metrics and collaborative elements required to ensure a truly defensible process.
 Experienced paralegals help law firms attain optimal success
Experienced paralegals can develop skills in organization, communication, delegation, and evaluation, making them just as effective as project managers. Law firms need to utilize the skill sets of paralegals to operate in an efficient manner.
As technology continues to evolve, paralegals can keep pace by increasing their knowledge of telecommunications, databases, Excel spreadsheets, and legal research software. In recent years, legal technology has created two new paralegal niches - litigation support and eDiscovery. By advancing their technological skill sets, paralegals will have a competitive advantage within the legal profession, as they successfully support law firms in both litigation and eDiscovery implementations.
By earning a degree in paralegal studies and obtaining work experience through paralegal internships, you can have a highly rewarding and satisfying position as a paralegal professional. To obtain a paralegal position, you will need an associate’s degree or a bachelor’s degree in paralegal studies, or a four-year degree in any discipline in addition to a certificate in paralegal studies. By acquiring a high-quality liberal arts education, as well as a thorough understanding of the legal profession, you will be well-prepared for future career success.





























Article 10: Teaching
Teachers need to understand a subject enough to convey its essence to students. While traditionally this has involved lecturing on the part of the teacher, new instructional strategies put the teacher more into the role of course designer, discussion facilitator, and coach and the student more into the role of active learner, discovering the subject of the course. In any case, the goal is to establish a sound knowledge base and skill set on which students will be able to build as they are exposed to different life experiences. Good teachers can translate information, good judgment, experience and wisdom into relevant knowledge that a student can understand, retain and pass to others. Studies from the US suggest that the quality of teachers is the single most important factor affecting student performance, and that countries which score highly on international tests have multiple policies in place to ensure that the teachers they employ are as effective as possible. With the passing of NCLB in the United States (No Child Left Behind), teachers must be highly qualified.
Article 11:Educational technology
Technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Computers and mobile phones are used in developed countries both to complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education (a type of distance education). This gives students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning. The proliferation of computers also means the increase of programming and blogging. Technology offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students, including Multimedia, and provides new ways to engage students, such as Virtual learning environments. One such tool are virtual manipulatives, which are an "interactive, Web-based visual representation of a dynamic object that presents opportunities for constructing mathematical knowledge" (Moyer, Bolyard, & Spikell, 2002). In short, virtual manipulatives are dynamic visual/pictorial replicas of physical mathematical manipulatives, which have long been used to demonstrate and teach various mathematical concepts. Virtual manipulatives can be easily accessed on the Internet as stand-alone applets, allowing for easy access and use in a variety of educational settings. Emerging research into the effectiveness of virtual manipulatives as a teaching tool have yielded promising results, suggesting comparable, and in many cases superior overall concept-teaching effectiveness compared to standard teaching methods. Technology is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. Technology is also being used in the assessment of students. One example is the Audience Response System (ARS), which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussions.
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a “diverse set of tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information.” These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. There is increasing interest in how computers and the Internet can improve education at all levels, in both formal and non-formal settings. Older ICT technologies, such as radio and television, have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning, although print remains the cheapest, most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries. In addition to classroom application and growth of e-learning opportunities for knowledge attainment, educators involved in student affairs programming have recognized the increasing importance of computer usage with data generation for and about students. Motivation and retention counselors, along with faculty and administrators, can impact the potential academic success of students by provision of technology based experiences in the University setting.
The use of computers and the Internet is in its infancy in developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access. Usually, various technologies are used in combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. For example, the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses both radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural community in Sri Lanka.[21] The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent years, online programming.[22] Similarly, the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print, recorded audio and video, broadcast radio and television, and audio conferencing technologies.[23]
The term "computer-assisted learning" (CAL) has been increasingly used to describe the use of technology in teaching.

Article 12 Florida Education: Community Involvement
Dangerous afflictions to our society is apathy. Apathy in politics has polarized us to the point of moving backwards. Apathy in our communities prevents us from enjoying the inherent resources of our surroundings. I have long said when we solve the problem of apathy the wrinkles of politics will go away. Education policy is politics in its most contemporary understanding. It is filled with special interests and bureaucratic strangle holds on power. One of the biggest deterrents to businesses getting involved with local educational efforts is the old adage that "No good deed goes unpunished." Stepping up to help out can open up unexpected consequences and liabilities. The other major obstacle to individuals getting involved is the lack of communication and reception of public input and ideas. Perhaps the most divisive and off-putting practice is our conditioning that public education is the only game in town. The natural occurrence is to split the people that are pre-disposed to being active and involved into several small competing, not cooperating groups. In a wholly market scenario this would preferable, but involving public education into the mix prohibits a market approach. Government is not a business and does not always have to subscribe to the same habits or practice. For compulsory public education we need to be thinking more utilitarian and strive to achieve the greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people. This means we need to make allies not enemies of the public and private schooling opportunities.
Assuming we solve some of the communication problems pointed out in Part II, informing the community should be a matter of process and PR. The real work is providing the open collaboration to actually accomplish the goals of providing higher quality learning to our students.
One area that I have grown to realize that I was relatively unaware or uninformed in is home schooling. This pseudo public/private education arena is one that has received lots of criticism and little accolades for the activity and programs it entails. Home schooling is fast becoming the economic preference to the perceived lack of quality in public schools. One of the myths that I clung to concerned quality and standards or accountability. Then I saw Orange county comparisons and realized that people are doing this out of fear for their children's futures. They (the parents) have already started to think cooperatively instead of individually. Find a teacher that is out of work in a bad economy, get a small group together and all of sudden you have a win/win. A teacher is making money and small groups of kids are getting focused attention.
Private schools and home schooling siphons off a great deal of responsibility from the public education system. Why has such an animosity between the three groups grown to a point that reminds me of partisan politics? The answer of course is not new. It reoccurs with almost every policy arena - money. Realizing that we are never going to remove money as the universal answer to all problems and solutions to politics, we must utilize it as the constant and make it a tool instead of an obstacle. Money, just as it currently is our burden can be leveraged as the saving tool. It can be the constant that brings the community back together with a common focus on providing meaningful education for our future. Utilize money from the private business community through incentives to help equalize the perceived differences between public, private, and home school and the competition can be shifted from finding money to finding academic achievement. Creative interaction/competition between the different educational entities can create community events that produce advertising possibilities that drive businesses to want/need to be involved. Community debates, brain bowls, spelling bees, etc. sponsored by local business and participated in by private vs. home school vs. public kids could really help with political apathy and create economic incentives for involvement.
Vouchers or similar systems must be maintained to allow for reasonable choice not based on economic availability. Individuals that choose to spend the cost of private institutions should receive some reasonable break on property taxes that fund schools. The lottery should be used for what it was originally sold to the public as - a never ending funding source for education. Businesses should be further allowed and encouraged to be involved with sponsorship of educational needs for all types of students. Coexisting with alternative sources of education to relieve the burden on public schools is a natural common sense approach and it creates more opportunity or paths for community involvement in the overall education of our public.































































Article 13 : Economics of education
It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth. Empirical analyses tend to support the theoretical prediction that poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries. However, technology transfer requires knowledgeable managers and engineers who are able to operate new machines or production practices borrowed from the leader in order to close the gap through imitation. Therefore, a country's ability to learn from the leader is a function of its stock of "human capital".Recent study of the determinants of aggregate economic growth have stressed the importance of fundamental economic institutions and the role of cognitive skills. At the individual level, there is a large literature, generally related back to the work of Jacob Mincer, on how earnings are related to the schooling and other human capital of the individual. This work has motivated a large number of studies, but is also controversial. The chief controversies revolve around how to interpret the impact of schooling.
Economists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis famously argued in 1976 that there was a fundamental conflict in American schooling between the egalitarian goal of democratic participation and the inequalities implied by the continued profitability of capitalist production on the other




Article 14 : History of education



The history of education according to Dieter Lenzen, president of the Freie Universit├Ąt Berlin 1994, "began either millions of years ago or at the end of 1770". Education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditions that existed before. Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on. The evolution of culture, and human beings as a species depended on this practice of transmitting knowledge. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. The depth and breadth of knowledge that could be preserved and passed soon increased exponentially. When cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond the basic skills of communicating, trading, gathering food, religious practices, etc., formal education, and schooling, eventually followed. Schooling in this sense was already in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC.
Nowadays some kind of education is compulsory to all people in most countries. Due to population growth and the proliferation of compulsory education, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.[31]


Article 15: Emotional Abuse In the Name of Academic Success in Indian Schools

Child abuse is a very serious matter in western schools and any teacher, parent and school involved in child abuse have to face the law. In spite of serious steps we still see some cases of child abuse here and there, but majority of children are safe from abuse. This is not the case when it comes to developing and under developed countries. Many countries didn’t address child abuse because of their culture and lack of awareness about the issue. Some countries officially announced child abuse as illegal, but they are not serious in enforcing the law. India is one of those countries that made child abuse illegal, especially in schools but doesn’t enforce the law strictly. This is causing an enormous physical and emotional damage to the younger children.

In recent years there is no more canning of students in schools, especially in private schools. Parents are not at all tolerating their children being canned or spanked by teachers. This is a very good sign of change, but abuse is still predominant at homes. However, there is a different form of abuse that is happening in every private school in the name of academic requirements and student success. I call it as “emotional abuse” What is so sad is educated parents are also supporting the idea without even noticing that the excessive workload on students is causing an enormous ‘emotional damage’ to the younger minds.

Private schools are very attractive to parents because they offer quality education to students, and they provide special coaching to students to prepare them for professional courses like Engineering, Medicine, and IIT (Indian Institute of Technology), highly reputed engineering and technology institute. While it is a good concept to prepare students to do well in school exams and also in entrance tests, it is sad that children are excessively burdened with school work and preparation. For example, none of the private schools allow their students leave the school before 6 hours. They are at school almost 9 hours, instead of recommended 5 ½ hours. In addition to this many students attend before and after school tuitions, and still have to finish their 2-3 hour homework after all these sessions, irrespective their grade levels.

When I look at school children in India my heart bleeds. Parents want the best education for their children, which is fair enough, but they are not noticing that with an excessive workload children are at abuse. This abuse of children must be stopped for the welfare of their physical and psychological well being. Since schools want to offer what parents demand, parents must take initiative in stopping this kind of abuse. On the other hand, teachers and educational experts must also make an effort to educate parents about this type of bad practice in schools. This I call a step toward a positive change, and perhaps an indicator of developing nation.




























Article 16: ESL Classroom Activity for Forming Sentences with Target Grammar
Whatever you are teaching it is always wise to come up with activities that get people moving around the room. Getting students to work together to complete assignments that test their knowledge of the material being taught is important. The following ESL activity can be utilized to practice the definitions of target ESL vocabulary and grammar. To start off, type out about ten definitions or phrases that cover the key vocabulary being learned in your class. Use a larger font so ESL students can see them easier. Leave some space between each word and add a couple of extra words that have nothing to do with the sentence. For example, if one of my sentences was “To get to the church you must turn right.” I would write that sentence with a large font and extra space between the words. I would also include words like “straight” or “drive”. These words are related to the topic, but they won’t fit in the sentence. Once you have your ten written, print them and cut out each individual sentence. Put a paper clip around the words for each sentence. Now, put all of the sentences in an envelope. In a standard sized class you’ll maybe want about ten envelopes like this.
When class starts, split everyone into groups of fours or fives. Pass out an envelope to each group. Instruct the students to pull out one set of words at a time and to spread these out on the table for all to see. The point of the activity is that all students will work together to put the words in order and to come up with a sentence that has meaning. Make sure to inform the students that there are two extra words included in each pile. When a group comes up with the correct answer they should raise their hands and you will proceed to check for accuracy. If the sentences are formed correctly, one student then mixes up the words, stacks them up, places a paper clip back around the words and selects another set from the envelope. As the ESL teacher, you will decide if the students got the sentence right. Judging on your class and the classroom environment you may want to make this a competition. The first group to get all ten sentences correct is victorious. In my experience, this will really get your ESL students excited and thinking. Even students who are not always super motivated, in terms of learning English in general, seem to perk up when they realize that this is a race. You can come up with a prize for the winning team if you decide to make it a competition. There is the option of doing one sentence at a time as a class. If you choose this route, no group is allowed to continue to the next set of words until you have indicated that everyone has finished. At this point the class can go over the correct answer and the meaning of the sentence one at a time.

This ESL activity works great for all age groups. Provided that all students are actively working on completing the task, allow everyone to enjoy themselves. The noise level will get a little high, but it will be worth it and everyone will have fun.






























Article 17: Kids Need Geography. So Why Won’t Public Schools Teach It?
Geography, Queen of the Sciences. Yes, that’s what scholars used to call geography. Savor that title. Queen of the Sciences. Is that not the highest praise you could bestow?
It sounds so strange, like something from Star Trek or Avatar. Geography important? This must be far away and in another galaxy. There could hardly be a more dramatic contrast between what elite universities and brilliant minds thought about geography a thousand years ago, and what we think about it now. Today we read about surveys where a third of the high school students in Arizona don’t know the name of the ocean on our East Coast. We see surveys where a big percentage of children can’t find major countries on a map, or even their own country.
None of this is the fault of the children, I’m certain. It’s the fault of our anti-intellectual Education Establishment, which for 100 years has waged war against foundational knowledge and basic facts. What is more foundational and basic than geography? It is the starting point for the study of just about everything else: history, geology, archaeology, anthropology, environmental science, world trade, military history, early mathematics, etc. Bottom line, teach geography, then more geography. It’s so easy to do. Every school room, and every child’s room, should have a map of the United States and as well a map of the world. At appropriate moments, adults can casually point and say, this is where you live, this is where the story takes place, this is where the flood occurred, this is where your uncle served in the military.
But why has the Education Establishment turned so completely against geography? Therein lies the history of 20th century American education. When you understand why the ideologues in charge belittled geography, you know why they battled against educational excellence in general. In a shift toward lower standards, geography symbolized everything our so-called educators hated. Facts and precision, for two examples. Geography had to die.
Geography is like the canary in the coal mine. When it’s gasping for breath, you can be sure everything else is in bad health.






Exercise 17. Match these characteristic with paragraph.
1. Teach geography is easy to do.
2. Queen of the siences.
3. surveys said that a big presentage of children can’t find major countries on map.
4. American education battled against educational excellence in general.
5. that’s like the canary In the coal mine.
























Article 18: First and Foremost, Teach Facts
One of the big debates in public education, going all the way back to John Dewey, is just how much basic knowledge should be taught. There actually was a time when children had to memorize a great deal of information. Arguably, that trend went too for. But now we've moved all the way to the opposite extreme, to the point where children know virtually nothing. Not even the most basic and necessary facts are allowed into their brains. Kids reach college not knowing what 6 x 8 is.
I write about this issue from many different angles, pointing out for example that if children merely learned one tiny little fact each day, that would be about 200 each year, and by the time they reached sixth grade, they would know more than the average college graduate of today. Teaching facts is no big deal. Problem is, the Education Establishment has declared war on basic information. It is simply not taught, and I believe this is a crime against children. Our brains are hardwired to want new information. I recently ran into a quote I put on my site several years ago: “Facts are to the mind what bones are to the body.” I don’t think I can improve on that. Without facts the mind is just mush. Schools are turning kids into jellyfish and then feeling proud of this.
One way I try to dramatize the bad job that many schools do is to create easy tests, with questions like, clouds are made of what, where is Japan, etc. Such tests are a simple way to embarrass kids into realizing how little they know. (I would like to embarrass the Education Establishment--but is that even possible?). My newest easy-test has only 10 questions and is part of an article titled “Do American Students Know Anything At All.” A fun read; and at the end there’s a link to “20: The Quizz,” which has 100 easy questions. (Also note the article has three videos: the one on the right is another easy-test with 12 questions. The left-hand video makes the case for foundational knowledge. The one in the middle explains why the brain wants new information.)
Also, I have to say that I take some pride in having created a new Latin proverb for this article: “Non cogito ergo non sum.” Which I translate: “I don’t think therefore I don’t exist.” This is meant to be an epithet for people who don’t know any facts. (Yes, "new Latin proverb" is an oxymoron.)
















Article 19: The Most Essential Factor in Parenting Students with ADD and ADHD?
Something such as “the ability to stay calm,” or “providing the right kind of structure,” or “keeping yourself healthy and well-rested.” Although these are crucial for long-term success in raising a child with ADD or ADHD, the most essential parenting trait is trust. A child with a disability of any kind has the potential to grow and develop beyond any expectations that adults in his life current hold for him, but only if he himself believes in his future. Without belief, he is limited to modest gains at best. Children who believe in themselves and their outcomes are committed in their endeavors. We all know from experience that the things we are committed to are not only easier for us, they are the things we stick with until we complete them. The messages you send your child influence his level of commitment through his belief about who he is and what he can accomplish. Think back to a time in your life as an adult when things were tough for you. It might be a particularly challenging time at work, a health crisis, difficulty in a relationship or a financial setback.
Now that you have that instance in mind, think about the people you interacted with during this stressful time. Did you feel criticized … judged … or did you feel their acceptance and willingness to be patient as you tackled the challenge?. It’s obvious that if you felt negative messages from others, it worked against you. You may have made errors … you might have lost your temper … you might even have given up. Adults have far more coping strategies than children do. If you, as an adult, were influenced by the negative messages of others, think about what it is like for your own child.
Your child reveres you. Your child has no ability to separate your parenting messages from his or her sense of self-worth. Children get the meaning of parental messages twisted in their minds. Because children see their failures larger than they see their successes, and because they believe that failure is a sign of their imperfection, they believe that when they disappoint their parents, their parents don’t like or want them. Parenting children with special needs requires that parents have a success-oriented belief system. A success-oriented belief system is grounded in the understanding that today’s thoughts fuel tomorrow’s results. Parents who appreciate that their child’s success is grounded in a “can-do” attitude know how to foster resilience and persistence in their children.
Strategies for developing a success-oriented belief system:

• You uplift your child from a position of liking yourself. Commit to developing and maintaining a strong, positive self-image. Be on a quest for personal development.
• Be committed to positive change in the family dynamic. Be alert to identifying and committed to eradicating maladaptive parenting patterns. Begin to see yourself as your child’s mentor, not your child’s boss.
• See your child’s life in positive and goal-directed terms. Reframe the meaning of genetics to understand how little is “set in stone.” Understand that individuals with disabilities are capable of attaining and becoming more than anyone can imagine or believe! Commit to focusing on what will be, and not to giving undue emphasis to what currently is.
Be comfortable with your child’s free expression. Never, never, never plan your child’s life to suit your needs or fulfill your desires. Believe in your child’s dreams, not your own dreams for your child. Teach your child to lead her life with purpose and clarity. Raising a child with special needs pulls forth from you power, clarity, and connection with your life’s purpose, and connection with the knowledge and ability to guide your life in more purposeful ways. If you are struggling in one or more areas of your relationship with your child, I suggest the best way for you to improve the situation is to rededicate yourself to 100% trust in your child’s ability and willingness to grow beyond your wildest expectations.






Article 20: Knowledge of the subject matter or the ability to relate with the students?
Mediocre teacher tells.The good teacher explains.The excellent teacher demonstrates.The great teacher inspires".A great quotation by William Arthur Ward which served as my guiding principle as a teacher.I remember when I was in kindergarten,everytime my friends would ask who will be our teacher in grade one, all they have to do is ask me. I knew all our teachers then. They were all nice and kind.That is why in my heart as a child the greatest profession is to be a teacher.
Every teacher should be equipped with the knolwledge of the subject matter and sharing that knolwledge is one of the primary goal of education. However,I disagree that it is more important than the teacher's abilitry to relate with the students. A teacher is not only a walking grammar book nor a human calculator but also a friend,a counsellor and a confidante roled into one.A teacher can be a good friend only if he can relate with the students. A teacher can be an effective counsellor if he can realte with the students. A teacher can be an excellent confidante if he can relate with the students.Therefore,the ability to relate with the students is very important.
A teacher has the ability to influence and effect students' life and the effect is infinite.In order to mold the students into whole rounded individuals,teachers should have the ability to relate with them and should understand that every individual is unique.Hence,the ability to relate with the students would help the teacher understands the students' individuality therefore he would know what effective approach he may use in the classroom. To sum it up,every teacher acquired the knowledge they specialized through the courses they took but none of those courses taught them how to be a great teacher that inspires. Iam confident that although Iam still very young in the teaching arena and had not yet accomplished milestones as what others already achieved but Iam very confident that Iam a good teacher and I would be an inspiration to my students.I owe this to my teachers that inspired me to be one .Iam the teacher that Iam now not because of the academic knowledge they taught me but because they touched my heart. They did it because of their ability to relate with me
Interactive Reading Activity for ESL Classro is to have students take turns reading one sentence or paragraph at a time. The activity presented here lets you involve the whole class while completing this task to keep everyone actively engaged. To start off, select a reading passage that uses the target vocabulary from the unit you are covering this week. These can be found in the text book you use. One could even write out his own short passage that contains these words. Of course, this option takes more time and effort, but it gives you more control over what is being read and the level of difficulty. Now that you have the reading, go through the document and white out about twenty words. Ideally you’ll want as many deleted words as you have students in your class. The trick is to decide which words can be omitted without making the entire meaning of the passage too difficult to understand. Put these deleted words on an index card. Every word will have its own index card. Make copies of the passage to hand out to the students. Be sure to save a copy of the original text, with no words deleted, to use as a reference.

To start the ESL activity, pass out the reading and one index card to each student. Inform the class that the passage will be read out loud as a class. Students will take turns reading one sentence each. If a reader is faced with a sentence that contains a word whited out he is to stop. Everyone must look at their index card and determine if their word is the appropriate one to fill in the blank. After letting the class discuss the correct word and its meaning, you can let everyone know what the word was supposed to be. There will be times when several students feel like their word is the one that correctly fills in the blank. This is an opportunity for the ESL students to actively learn as a group. As a class you can figure out why one word makes sense and another one does not.

Go through the entire passage and tell students to write in the correct words on their paper as you go. Students will be actively engaged, even when they are not reading, since they are expected to possibly offer their word to the reader. This exercise will work for little kids all the way up to adult learners.




ANSWER KEY
Exercise 1
a) : 2 (Making choices and decisions)
b) : 1 (it comes to their own children)
c) : 6 (what is being taught and what is being practiced )
d) : 7 (to suit the the curriculum needs and interests)
e) : 4 (believe that their children are being pushed too hard)

Excersise 2
Teachers : 1,3,6,7,9,10,11
Parents : 2,5,4,8
Excersise 3
1. uncomfortable with math(1), mathematical principles (2)
2. 1965(1),1990(2)
3. arithmetic, using every trick, game, song and digital technology
4. the National Standards(1), mine in Norfolk(2)
5. hostility of the prose
excersise 4
1. F
2. T
3. F
4. F
5. T
Excersise 5
1. 3
2. 4
3. 1
4. 4
5. 2
6. 2
Exercise 6
a) :of the first 5–7 years of formal
b) :enrolled in primary education
c) :UNESCO
d) :have separate middle schools
e) :mostly referred to as primary schools
Excersise 7



Exercise 17
1. paragraph 3
2. paragraph 2
3. paragraph 1
4. paragraph 4
5. paragraph 5
»»  read more

makalah teroris

MAKALAH PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN
“TERORISME”









DI SUSUN OLEH:
NAMA :
 THARADIVA FATRIA
 TRI RANDI
 USWATUN KHASANAH
 YUDHI FARHAN
 YEMIMA ALBERTY
 EMELDA MAYASARI
FAKULTAS : KIP
PRODI : PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS


KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL
UNIVERSITAS BENGKULU
2010/2011

KATA PENGANTAR
Puji syukur saya ucapkan kehadirat Allah swt yang telah memberikan rahmat dan karunianya sehingga kami dapat menyelesaikan makalah mengenai terorisme ini dengan sebaik-baiknnya.
Makalah ini dibuat sebagai salah satu tugas yang diberikan kepada kami sebagai bahan diskusi dan referensi bagi kami saat pelaksanaan diskusi dalam mata kuliah Pendidikan kewarganegaraan. Semoga dengan terselesaikannya makalah ini dapat menjadi pembelajaran yang lebih baik bagi kami dalam pembuatan mkalah saya yang berikutnya.
Makalah ini berisikan tentang pengertian teroris, UU yang mengatur tentang teroris dan dampak yang ditimbulkan jika kita menjadi seorang teroris. Makalah ini dibuat dengan sebagaiman mestinya dan kami berharap bahwa makalah ini dapat memberikan sebuah wawasan baru bagi kami maupun bagi anda yang membacanya.
Demikian makalah ini kami buat dan semoga bermanfaat.




Penulis








DAFTAR ISI
Halaman judul………………………………………………………………………………….1
Kata pengantar……….…………………………………………………………….…………..2
Daftar isi………………………………….…………………………………………………….3
Bab I. Pendahuluan
1.1 Latar Belakang………………………………………………………………………4
1.2 Rumusan Masalah…………...………………………………………………………4
1.3 Tujuan Penulisan…………………………………………………...………………..5
Bab II. Pembahasan
2.1 Pengertian terorisme dan perilaku yang dapat dikategorikan sebagai perilaku teroris…….6
2.2 UU apa saja yang mengatur tentang terorisme dan sejauh mana pelaksanaan UU itu sendiri………………………………………………………………..………………..………..7
2.3 Sisi negatif yang ditimbulkan oleh pelaksanaan UU tentang pemberantasan terorisme…12
2.4 Upaya yang bisa dilakukan untuk memerangi terorisme…...……………………………13
Bab III.Penutup………………..…………………………………………….………………..15
Daftar Pustaka………………………………………………………………………………...16








BAB I
PENDAHULUAN
1.1. latar Belakang
Seperti kita ketahui bahwa aksi Terorisme di dunia bukanlah merupakan hal baru, namun menjadi aktual terutama sejak terjadinya peristiwa World Trade Centre (WTC) di New York, Amerika Serikat pada tanggal 11 September 2001, dikenal sebagai “September Kelabu”, yang memakan 3000 korban. Serangan dilakukan melalui udara, tidak menggunakan pesawat tempur, melainkan menggunakan pesawat komersil milik perusahaan Amerika sendiri, sehingga tidak tertangkap oleh radar Amerika Serikat. Tiga pesawat komersil milik Amerika Serikat dibajak, dua diantaranya ditabrakkan ke menara kembar Twin Towers World Trade Centre dan gedung Pentagon. Kejadian ini merupakan isu global yang mempengaruhi kebijakan politik seluruh negara-negara di dunia, sehingga menjadi titik tolak persepsi untuk memerangi Terorisme sebagai musuh internasional. Pembunuhan massal tersebut telah mempersatukan dunia melawan Terorisme Internasional.
Terlebih lagi di Indonesia juga terjadi aksi teroris dengan terjadinya Tragedi Bali I, tanggal 12 Oktober 2002 yang merupakan tindakan teror, menimbulkan korban sipil terbesar di dunia, yaitu menewaskan 184 orang dan melukai lebih dari 300 orang. Menyadari sedemikian besarnya kerugian yang ditimbulkan oleh suatu tindak Terorisme, serta dampak yang dirasakan secara langsung oleh Indonesia sebagai akibat dari Tragedi Bom Bali I, merupakan kewajiban pemerintah untuk secepatnya mengusut tuntas Tindak Pidana Terorisme itu dengan memidana pelaku dan aktor intelektual dibalik peristiwa tersebut.
Hal ini menjadi prioritas utama dalam penegakan hukum. Dan sebagai mahasiswa sudah merupakan kewajiban bagi kita untuk belajar dan memahami apa itu terorisme. Oleh sebab itu, dalam kesempatan kali ini kami akan membahas mengenai masalah terorisme.




1.2 Rumusan Masalah
Masalah yang akan kami bahas dalam makalah ini adalah:
• Apa yang disebut dengan terorisme dan tindakan seperti apa yang bias dikategorikan tindakan teroris ?

• UU apa saja yang mengatur tentang terorisme dan sejauh mana pelaksanaan UU itu sendiri ?
• Sisi negatif apakah yang ditimbulkan oleh pelaksanaan UU tentang pemberantasan terorisme ?
• Upaya apa yang bisa dilakukan untuk memerangi terorisme?

1.3 Tujuan Penulisan
Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dengan terselesaikannya penulisan makalah ini adalah disamping untuk melaksanakan penugasan pembuatan makalah yang materinya menyangkut masalah terorisme dari Dosen, makalah ini juga bertujuan sebagai sarana untuk belajar dalam menuangkan pemikiran kami tentang Mata Kuliah Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan yang diterima dengan ditunjang dengan beberapa referensi – referensi yang relevan dengan permasalahan ini. Selain itu,Dengan penulisan makalah ini, kami mengharapkan agar makalah ini dapat dijadikan sebagai referensi dan tambahan wawasan / pengetahuan bagi pembaca mengenai hal-hal yang berkenaan aksi terorisme yang membawa pengaruh terhadap kondisi keamanan dalam dan luar negeri.















BAB II
PEMBAHASAN
2.1 Pengertian terorisme dan perilaku yang dapat dikategorikan sebagai perilaku teroris.
Terorisme secara kasar merupakan suatu istilah yang digunakan untuk penggunaan kekerasan terhadap penduduk sipil/non kombatan untuk mencapai tujuan politik, dalam skala lebih kecil daripada perang . Dari segi bahasa, istilah teroris berasal dari Perancis pada abad 18. Kata Terorisme yang artinya dalam keadaan teror ( under the terror ), berasal dari bahasa latin ”terrere” yang berarti gemetaran dan ”detererre” yang berarti takut . Istilah terorisme pada awalnya digunakan untuk menunjuk suatu musuh dari sengketa teritorial atau kultural melawan ideologi atau agama yang melakukan aksi kekerasan terhadap publi. Istilah terorisme dan teroris sekarang ini memiliki arti politis dan sering digunakan untuk mempolarisasi efek yang mana terorisme tadinya hanya untuk istilah kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh pihak musuh, dari sudut pandang yang diserang.
Polarisasi tersebut terbentuk dikarenakan ada relativitas makna terorisme yang mana menurut Wiliam D Purdue ( 1989 ), ”the use word terorism is one method of delegitimation often use by side that has the military advantage”. Sedangkan teroris merupakan individu yang secara personal terlibat dalam aksi terorisme. Penggunaan istilah teroris meluas dari warga yang tidak puas sampai paada non komformis politik.Aksi terorisme dapat dilakukan oleh individu, sekelompok orang atau negara sebagai alternatif dari pernyataan perang secara terbuka. Negara yang mendukung kekerasan terhadap penduduk sipil menggunakn istilah positif untuk kombatan mereka, misalnya antara lain paramiliter, pejuang kebebasan atau patriot. Kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh kombatan negara, bagaimanapun lebih diterima daripada yang dilakukan oleh ” teroris ” yang mana tidak mematuhi hukum perang dan karenanya tidak dapat dibenarkan melakukan kekerasan. . Negara yang terlibat dalam peperangan juga sering melakukan kekerasan terhadap penduduk sipil dan tidak diberi label sebagai teroris. Meski kemudian muncul istilah State Terorism , namun mayoritas membedakan antara kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh negara dengan terorisme, hanyalah sebatas bahwa aksi terorisme dilakukan secara acak, tidak mengenal kompromi , korban bisa saja militer atau sipil , pria, wanita, tua, muda bahkan anak-anak, kaya miskin, siapapun dapat diserang.
Kebanyakan dari definisi terorisme yang ada menjelaskan empat macam kriteria, antara lain target, tujuan, motivasi dan legitmasi dari aksi terorisme tersebut. Pada Bulan November 2004 , Panel PBB mendifinisikan terorisme sebagai
” Any action intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians, non combatans, when the purpose of such act by is nature or context, is to intimidate a population or compel a government or international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act”. ( Yang dalam terjemahan bebasnya adalah segala aksi yang dilakukan untuk menyebabkan kematian atau kerusakan tubuh yag serius bagi para penduduk sipil, non kombatan dimana tujuan dari aksi tersebut berdasarkan konteksnya adalah untuk mengintimidasi suatu populasi atau memaksa pemerintah atau organisasi internasional untuk melakukan atau tidak melakukan sesuatu ).Dapat dikatakan secara sederhana bahwa aksi-aksi terorisme dilatarbelakangi oleh motif – motif tertentu seperti motif perang suci, motif ekonomi, motif balas dendam dan motif-motif berdasarkan aliaran kepercayaan tertentu. Namun patut disadari bahwa terorisme bukan suatu ideologi atau nilai-nilai tertentu dalam ajaran agama. Ia sekedar strategi , instrumen atau alat untuk mencapai tujuan . Dengan kata lain tidak ada terorisme untuk terorisme, kecuali mungkin karena motif-motif kegilaan ( madness ).

2.2 UU apa saja yang mengatur tentang terorisme dan sejauh mana pelaksanaan UU itu sendiri
Dalam rangka mencegah dan memerangi Terorisme tersebut, sejak jauh sebelum maraknya kejadian-kejadian yang digolongkan sebagai bentuk Terorisme terjadi di dunia, masyarakat internasional maupun regional serta pelbagai negara telah berusaha melakukan kebijakan kriminal (criminal policy) disertai kriminalisasi secara sistematik dan komprehensif terhadap perbuatan yang dikategorikan sebagai Terorisme. Menyadari sedemikian besarnya kerugian yang ditimbulkan oleh suatu tindak Terorisme, serta dampak yang dirasakan secara langsung oleh Indonesia sebagai akibat dari Tragedi Bali, merupakan kewajiban pemerintah untuk secepatnya mengusut tuntas Tindak Pidana Terorisme itu dengan memidana pelaku dan aktor intelektual dibalik peristiwa tersebut. Hal ini menjadi prioritas utama dalam penegakan hukum.
Untuk melakukan pengusutan, diperlukan perangkat hukum yang mengatur tentang Tindak Pidana Terorisme. Menyadari hal ini dan lebih didasarkan pada peraturan yang ada saat ini yaitu Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP) belum mengatur secara khusus serta tidak cukup memadai untuk memberantas Tindak Pidana Terorisme, Pemerintah Indonesia merasa perlu untuk membentuk Undang-Undang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Terorisme, yaitu dengan menyusun Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang (Perpu) nomor 1 tahun 2002, yang pada tanggal 4 April 2003 disahkan menjadi Undang-Undang dengan nomor 15 tahun 2003 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Terorisme. Keberadaan Undang-Undang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Terorisme di samping KUHP dan Undang-Undang Nomor 8 tahun 1981 tentang Hukum Acara Pidana (KUHAP), merupakan Hukum Pidana Khusus. Hal ini memang dimungkinkan, mengingat bahwa ketentuan Hukum Pidana yang bersifat khusus, dapat tercipta karena
1. Adanya proses kriminalisasi atas suatu perbuatan tertentu di dalam masyarakat. Karena pengaruh perkembangan zaman, terjadi perubahan pandangan dalam masyarakat. Sesuatu yang mulanya dianggap bukan sebagai Tindak Pidana, karena perubahan pandangan dan norma di masyarakat, menjadi termasuk Tindak Pidana dan diatur dalam suatu perundang-undangan Hukum Pidana.
2. Undang-Undang yang ada dianggap tidak memadai lagi terhadap perubahan norma dan perkembangan teknologi dalam suatu masyarakat, sedangkan untuk perubahan undang-undang yang telah ada dianggap memakan banyak waktu.
3. Suatu keadaan yang mendesak sehingga dianggap perlu diciptakan suatu peraturan khusus untuk segera menanganinya.
4. Adanya suatu perbuatan yang khusus dimana apabila dipergunakan proses yang diatur dalam peraturan perundang-undangan yang telah ada akan mengalami kesulitan dalam pembuktian.
Sebagai Undang-Undang khusus, berarti Undang-Undang Nomor 15 tahun 2003 mengatur secara materiil dan formil sekaligus, sehingga terdapat pengecualian dari asas yang secara umum diatur dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP)/Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Acara Pidana (KUHAP) [[(lex specialis derogat lex generalis)]]. Keberlakuan lex specialis derogat lex generalis, harus memenuhi criteria:
1. bahwa pengecualian terhadap Undang-Undang yang bersifat umum, dilakukan oleh peraturan yang setingkat dengan dirinya, yaitu Undang-Undang.
2. bahwa pengecualian termaksud dinyatakan dalam Undang-Undang khusus tersebut, sehingga pengecualiannya hanya berlaku sebatas pengecualian yang dinyatakan dan bagian yang tidak dikecualikan tetap berlaku sepanjang tidak bertentangan dengan pelaksanaan Undang-Undang khusus tersebut.
Sedangkan kriminalisasi Tindak Pidana Terorisme sebagai bagian dari perkembangan hukum pidana dapat dilakukan melalui banyak cara, seperti melalui sistem evolusi berupa amandemen terhadap pasal-pasal KUHP.
1. Melalui sistem global melalui pengaturan yang lengkap di luar KUHP termasuk kekhususan hukum acaranya.
2. Sistem kompromi dalam bentuk memasukkan bab baru dalam KUHP tentang kejahatan terorisme.
Akan tetapi tidak berarti bahwa dengan adanya hal yang khusus dalam kejahatan terhadap keamanan negara berarti penegak hukum mempunyai wewenang yang lebih atau tanpa batas semata-mata untuk memudahkan pembuktian bahwa seseorang telah melakukan suatu kejahatan terhadap keamanan negara, akan tetapi penyimpangan tersebut adalah sehubungan dengan kepentingan yang lebih besar lagi yaitu keamanan negara yang harus dilindungi.
Demikian pula susunan bab-bab yang ada dalam peraturan khusus tersebut harus merupakan suatu tatanan yang utuh. Selain ketentuan tersebut, pasal 103 Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP) menyebutkan bahwa semua aturan termasuk asas yang terdapat dalam buku I Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP) berlaku pula bagi peraturan pidana di luar Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP) selama peraturan di luar Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP) tersebut tidak mengatur lain.
Hukum Pidana khusus, bukan hanya mengatur hukum pidana materielnya saja, akan tetapi juga hukum acaranya, oleh karena itu harus diperhatikan bahwa aturan-aturan tersebut seyogyanya tetap memperhatikan asas-asas umum yang terdapat baik dalam ketentuan umum yang terdapat dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP) bagi hukum pidana materielnya sedangkan untuk hukum pidana formilnya harus tunduk terhadap ketentuan yang terdapat dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 8 tahun 1981 tentang Hukum Acara Pidana (Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Acara Pidana/KUHAP).
Sebagaimana pengertian tersebut di atas, maka pengaturan pasal 25 Undang-Undang Nomor 15 tahun 2003 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Terorisme, bahwa untuk menyelesaikan kasus-kasus Tindak Pidana Terorisme, hukum acara yang berlaku adalah sebagaimana ketentuan Undang-Undang Nomor 8 tahun 1981 tentang Hukum Acara Pidana (Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Acara Pidana/KUHAP). Artinya pelaksanaan Undang-Undang khusus ini tidak boleh bertentangan dengan asas umum Hukum Pidana dan Hukum Acara Pidana yang telah ada. Namun, pada kenyataannya, terdapat isi ketentuan beberapa pasal dalam Undang-Undang tersebut yang merupakan penyimpangan asas umum Hukum Pidana dan Hukum Acara Pidana. Penyimpangan tersebut mengurangi Hak Asasi Manusia, apabila dibandingkan asas-asas yang terdapat dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP). Apabila memang diperlukan suatu penyimpangan, harus dicari apa dasar penyimpangan tersebut, karena setiap perubahan akan selalu berkaitan erat dengan Hak Asasi Manusia. Atau mungkin karena sifatnya sebagai Undang-Undang yang khusus, maka bukan penyimpangan asas yang terjadi di sini, melainkan pengkhususan asas yang sebenarnya menggunakan dasar asas umum, namun dikhususkan sesuai dengan ketentuan-ketentuan yang khusus sifatnya yang diatur oleh Undang-Undang Khusus tersebut.
Sesuai pengaturan Undang-Undang Nomor 8 tahun 1981 tentang Hukum Acara Pidana (Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Acara Pidana/KUHAP), penyelesaian suatu perkara Tindak Pidana sebelum masuk dalam tahap beracara di pengadilan, dimulai dari Penyelidikan dan Penyidikan, diikuti dengan penyerahan berkas penuntutan kepada Jaksa Penuntut Umum. Pasal 17 Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Acara Pidana/KUHAP) menyebutkan bahwa perintah Penangkapan hanya dapat dilakukan terhadap seseorang yang diduga keras telah melakukan Tindak Pidana berdasarkan Bukti Permulaan yang cukup. Mengenai batasan dari pengertian Bukti Permulaan itu sendiri, hingga kini belum ada ketentuan yang secara jelas mendefinisikannya dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Acara Pidana (KUHAP) yang menjadi dasar pelaksanaan Hukum Pidana. Masih terdapat perbedaan pendapat di antara para penegak hukum.
Sedangkan mengenai Bukti Permulaan dalam pengaturannya pada Undang-Undang Nomor 15 Tahun 2003 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Terorisme, pasal 26 berbunyi.
1. Untuk memperoleh Bukti Permulaan yang cukup, penyidik dapat menggunakan setiap Laporan Intelijen.
2. Penetapan bahwa sudah dapat atau diperoleh Bukti Permulaan yang cukup sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) harus dilakukan proses pemeriksaan oleh Ketua dan Wakil Ketua Pengadilan Negeri.
3. Proses pemeriksaan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (2) dilaksanakan secara tertutup dalam waktu paling lama 3 (tiga) hari.
4. Jika dalam pemeriksaan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (2) ditetapkan adanya Bukti Permulaan yang cukup, maka Ketua Pengadilan Negeri segera memerintahkan dilaksanakan Penyidikan.
Permasalahannya adalah masih terdapat kesimpang siuran tentang pengertian Bukti Permulaan itu sendiri, sehingga sulit menentukan apakah yang dapat dikategorikan sebagai Bukti Permulaan, termasuk pula Laporan Intelijen, apakah dapat dijadikan Bukti Permulaan. Selanjutnya, menurut pasal 26 ayat 2, 3 dan 4 Undang-Undang Nomor 15 tahun 2003 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Terorisme, penetapan suatu Laporan Intelijen sebagai Bukti Permulaan dilakukan oleh Ketua/Wakil Ketua Pengadilan Negeri melalui suatu proses/mekanisme pemeriksaan (Hearing) secara tertutup. Hal itu mengakibatkan pihak intelijen mempunyai dasar hukum yang kuat untuk melakukan penangkapan terhadap seseorang yang dianggap melakukan suatu Tindak Pidana Terorisme, tanpa adanya pengawasan masyarakat atau pihak lain mana pun. Padahal kontrol sosial sangat dibutuhkan terutama dalam hal-hal yang sangat sensitif seperti perlindungan terhadap hak-hak setiap orang sebagai manusia yang sifatnya asasi, tidak dapat diganggu gugat.
Oleh karena itu, untuk mencegah kesewenang-wenangan dan ketidakpastian hukum, diperlukan adanya ketentuan yang pasti mengenai pengertian Bukti Permulaan dan batasan mengenai Laporan Intelijen, apa saja yang dapat dimasukkan ke dalam kategori Laporan Intelijen, serta bagaimana sebenarnya hakekat Laporan Intelijen, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai Bukti Permulaan. Terutama karena ketentuan pasal 26 ayat (1) tersebut memberikan wewenang yang begitu luas kepada penyidik untuk melakukan perampasan kemerdekaan yaitu penangkapan, terhadap orang yang dicurigai telah melakukan Tindak Pidana Terorisme, maka kejelasan mengenai hal tersebut sangatlah diperlukan agar tidak terjadi pelanggaran terhadap Hak Asasi Manusia dengan dilakukannya penangkapan secara sewenang-wenang oleh aparat, dalam hal ini penyidik.
Demikian pula perlu dirumuskan tentang pengaturan, cara mengajukan tuntutan terhadap petugas yang telah salah dalam melakukan tugasnya, oleh orang-orang yang menderita akibat kesalahan itu dan hak asasinya telah terlanggar, karena banyak Pemerintah suatu negara dalam melakukan pencegahan maupun penindakan terhadap perbuatan teror melalui suatu pengaturan khusus yang bersifat darurat, dimana aturan darurat itu dianggap telah jauh melanggar bukan saja hak seseorang terdakwa, akan tetapi juga terhadap Hak Asasi Manusia. Aturan darurat sedemikian itu telah memberikan wewenang yang berlebih kepada penguasa di dalam melakukan penindakan terhadap perbuatan teror.
Telah banyak negara-negara didunia yang mengorbankan Hak Asasi Manusia demi pemberlakuan Undang-Undang Antiterorisme, termasuk hak-hak yang digolongkan kedalam non-derogable rights, yakni hak-hak yang tidak boleh dikurangi pemenuhannya dalam keadaan apapun. Undang-Undang Antiterorisme kini diberlakukan di banyak negara untuk mensahkan kesewenang-wenangan (arbitrary detention) pengingkaran terhadap prinsip free and fair trial. Laporan terbaru dari Amnesty Internasional menyatakan bahwa penggunaan siksaan dalam proses interogasi terhadap orang yang disangka teroris cenderung meningkat. Hal seperti inilah yang harus dihindari, karena Tindak Pidana Terorisme harus diberantas karena alasan Hak Asasi Manusia, sehingga pemberantasannya pun harus dilaksanakan dengan mengindahkan Hak Asasi Manusia. Demikian menurut Munir, bahwa memang secara nasional harus ada Undang-Undang yang mengatur soal Terorisme, tapi dengan definisi yang jelas, tidak boleh justru melawan Hak Asasi Manusia. Melawan Terorisme harus ditujukan bagi perlindungan Hak Asasi Manusia, bukan sebaliknya membatasi dan melawan Hak Asasi Manusia. Dan yang penting juga bagaimana ia tidak memberi ruang bagi legitimasi penyalahgunaan kekuasaan.


2.3 Sisi negatif yang ditimbulkan oleh pelaksanaan UU tentang pemberantasan terorisme
Kebijakan yang terlalu bertumpu kepada pendekatan legal formal dan bersifat represif, perlu ditinjau ulang karena bukan saja tidak mampu mengatasi masalah terorisme tetapi justeru dapat meningkatkan tindakan kekerasan semacam itu di masa depan . Hal itu terbukti makin banyaknya 2004. Pemerintah perlu memikirkan alternatif pendekatan dalam menyelesaikan masalah terorisme di tanah air diluar pendekatan legal formal / represif. Ada beberapa hal efek negatif dapat menyebabkan cara penyelesaian berbasis legal formal/represif itu kurang mampu menyelesaikan masalah terorisme yaitu :
a) Logika dibelakang pendekatan melalui pendekatan melalui mekanisme hukum itu berlawanan dengan logika yang dianut para teroris itu sendiri. Sanksi pidana pada dasarnya untuk mencegah agar sesorang tidak melakukan tindakan tersebut dan atau menghukum mereka yang melakukan tindakan yang dilarang dengan harapan pelaku dan orang lain tidak melakukan hal yang sama kelak dengan cara menerapkan sanksi fisik bagi para pelanggar, mulai yang teringan sampai dengan yang terberat seperti hukuman mati. Tetapi, logika itu berlawanan dengan logika para pelaku teroris yang bertindak melampaui rasa takut untuk melakukannya bahkan mereka rela mati untuk mewujudkan tujuan mereka.
b) Cara memerangi terorisme yang bersifat legal formal dan represif seperti ini dapat menimbulkan efek balik yang berlawanan dengan tujuan semula untuk memerangi terorisme. Tindakan semacam itu tidak mustahil justeru dapat memicu perlawanan dan radikalisme baru yang lebih hebat , bukan hanya dari kelompok masyarakat yang dituding sebagai pelaku terorisme tetapi menimbulkan reaksi negatif dari kelompok-kelompok lainnya. Apalagi tiap penerapan cara penanganan semacam itu seringkali bukannya mengobati dan menyembuhkan luka dan rasa frustasi suatu kelompok dalam masyarakat tetapi cenderung berakibat pada kian mendiskreditkan dan memojokkan mereka . Kolompok masyarakat lain akan memberikan stigma negatif pada kelompok masyarakat tersebut sehingga kelompok yang menerima stigma tersebut akan berdampak melakukan perlawanan kepada pemerintah dan kelompok lainnya.
c) Penerapan UU yag represif seperti UU anti terorisme dan internal security act dapat membawa implikasi negatif bagi kehidupan berbangsa dan bernegara khususnya kehidupan masyarakat demokrasi. Jika ISA diberlakukan wewenang aparat negara akan lebih besar sehingga terbuka peluang untuk disalahgunakan . Ada kemungkinan orang yang dicuriagai sebagai teroris dapat diperiksa dan ditangkap tanpa prosedur hukum yang sah dan benar. Tiap-tiap lawan politik yang berseberangan misalnya dapat dikenakan dengan pasal-pasal ini sehingga memunculkan state terorism yang tentunya akan menimbulkan masalah panjang yang tidak berkesudahan. Keberhasilan membuat perangkat hukum yang baik belum tentu memberikan dampak positif dalam mewujudkan maksud dan tujuan hukum. Sebagus apappun produk hukum formal yang ada tidak akan ada artinya tanpa disertai penerapan yang baik. Ironisnya, Indonesia dipandang sebagai negara yang pandai membuat perangkat hukum namun masih lemah penerapannya. Hal ini jika dibiarkan akan mempengaruhi tingkat kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap hukum itu sendiri.

2.4 Upaya yang bisa dilakukan untuk memerangi terorisme
Pendekatan Sosio-Kultural dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif penyelesaian. Dalam jangka panjang memerangi terorisme tidaklah cukup dan tidak akan pernah berhasil hanya dengan menindak pelaku teror dan peledakan bom dengan kekerasan. Kita melihat bagaimananya Amerika Serikat dan sekutunya dalam menjalankan kampanye ”Perang Terhadap Terorisme”. Justeru kampanye tersebut telah menimbulkan masalah tersendiri yang telah memakan korban warga negara mereka itu sendiri dan mengeluarkan biaya yang tidak sedikit untuk menindak para pelaku teror. Para pelaku teror tersebut akan terus meningkatkan perlawanannya seiring semakin hebatnya USA dan sekutunya untuk memerangi pelaku teroris.
Fakta telah menunjukkan bahwa membunuh pelaku teror, mengisolasinya dan memenjarakan para pemimpin organisasi teroris tidak mampu menghentikan tindakan terorisme dalam waktu lama.Sementara itu di Indonesia munculnya tindakan terorisme menandakan adanya yang salah dalam sistem sosial, politik dan ekonomi . Para pelaku teroris menjadi sedemikian radikal disebabkan mereka merasa termarginalisasi dan terasing dari kehidupan sosial, politik dan ekonomi masyarakat . Keterasingan tersebut pada umumya bersifat struktural yang termanifestasi dalam kebijakan pemerintah yang kurang akomodatif atau merugikan dalam waktu panjang.
Hal ini akan mengakibatkan perasaaan tidak puas dan benci pada pemerintah dan kelompok masyarakat tertentu seperti orang kaya, penguasa dan orang asing yang dianggap telah melangkahi kepentingan mereka. Namun upaya untuk mengatasi rasa keterasingan tersebut secara normal mengalami hambatan karena tidak ada ruang bagi mereka untuk berpartisipasi dan menyalurkan harapan serta kepentingan mereka sehingga timbullah aksi radikal seperti terorisme Amatlah penting untuk menerapkan cara-cara lain yang lebih persuasif dan akomodatif terhadap kepentingan terhadap kelompok yang berpotensi melakukan tindakan terorisme. Misalnya dengan menerapkan kebijakan yang lebih sensitif terhadap kepentingan berbagai kelompok yang merasa termarginalisasi atau dirugikan dengan berbagai kebijakan yang telah diterapkan selama ini. Termasuk kemungkinan penerapan tindakan yang bersifat dan mengandung unsur konsesi dan rekonsiliasi antara pemerintah dan masyarakat serta unsur-unsur dalam masyarakat itu sendiri. Sehingga memperkecil pilihan penggunaan kekerasan untuk mencapai tujuannya.
Selain itu pula dalam rangka mengeliminir perekrutan pelaku terorisme pemerintah dapat bersinerji dengan para tokoh setiap agama yang ada di Indoensia untuk melepaskan label atau stigma dari suatu kelompok tertentu terhadap kelompok lainnya yang dicurigai sebagai pelaku terorisme. Sehingga perlunya lebih merekatkan kerjasama di dalam kelompok masyarakat Indonesia dan menjalin komunikasi untuk menyamakan persamaan pandangan dari dalam seluruh kelompok masyarakat bahwa terorisme bukanlah nilai / ajaran suatu kelompok tertentu.


BAB IV
PENUTUP

Berdasarkan penjelasan diatas bahwa dapat terlihat bahwa Terorisme timbul dengan dilatar belakangi berbagai sebab dan motif. Naun patut kita sadari bahwa terorisme bukan merupakan ideologi atau nilai-nilai tertentu dalam ajaran agama . Terorisme merupakan strategi , instrumen dan atau alat mencapai tujuan. Penerapan UU anti terorisme di dalam No 15 Tahun 2003 sangat berpotensi mengakibatkan pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia bagi para tersangka terorisme dan tidak memberikan efektifitas untuk mengurangi orang untuk bertindak sebagai teroris. Wewenang yang terlalu luas bagi aparat untuk memberantas terorisme tanpa disertai tanggungjawab dalam pelaksanaannya akan mengakibatkan suatu terorisme baru yang dilakukan terhadap negara terhadap warga negaranya atau State Terorism.
Hal inilah yang ditakutkan oleh para ahli hukum pidana. Untuk itu pemerintah perlu memikirkan pendekatan yang tidak legalis represif terhadap terorisme salah satunya antara lain memikirkan kemungkinan rekonsialisasi dan terbukanya komunikasi intensif antara pemerintah-masyarakat dan unsur-unsur di dalam masyarakat itu sendiri. Patut disadari bahwa terorisme merupakan rangkaian tindakan yang kompleks, maka pada dasarnya pengaturan anti terorisme tidak akan memadai jika hanya dilakukandalam satu undang-undang.
Selain itu sudah sepatutnya aparat penegak hukum mengefektifkan ketentuan hukum yang sudah ada dan terpancar dalam berbagai undang-undang, dengan cara mengintegrasikan kedalam kerangka hukum yang komprehensif. Revisi UU anti terorisme harus sesuai dengan kerangka hukum yang harus mengatur aspek-aspek yang berkaitan dengan pengawasan perbatasan, keamanan transportasi, bea cukai, keimigrasian, money loundring, basis rekruitmen dan pelatihan ( milisi atau pelatihan militer illegal ), keuangan, bahan peledak, bahan kimia dan persenjataan serta perlindungan terhadap masyarakat sipil. Serta mewajibkan setiap prosedur dan tindakan hukum dilakukan secara nondiskriminatif , melindungi dan menghormati HAM.



DAFTAR PUSTAKA
 HHTP://en. www.pemantauperadilan.com . Diakses tanggal 21 April 2008.
 “History and causes of terrorism “ hhtp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/terrorism. Diakses tanggal 21 April 2008.
 Tb Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, “State Terorism”. Kompas Cyber Media , www.kompas.com.edisi Sabtu, 20 April 2002. Diakses tanggal 22 April 2008.
 HHTP://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/definitions_of_terorism. Diakses tanggal 22 April 2008.
 Kompas Cyber Media, “ Revisi UU Anti Terorisme Diakui untuk menambah Kewenangan Intelejen” , Sabtu, 30 Agustus 2003 .www.kompas.com, diakses tanggal 23April 2008.
 Dr. Indrianto SenoAdjie , SH, MH, “Terorisme” Perpu No. 1 Tahun 2002 dalam perspektif hukum pidana, Hal 45 , Buku OC Kaligis & Associates, Terorisme : Tragedi Umat Manusia , Jakarta, April 2003.
 Amir Syamsuddin, “ Menegakkan Hukum Tanpa Rasa Keadilan”, Kompas Cyber Media, 30 Juli 2004, www.kompas.com , diakses tanggal 25 April 2008.
 Frans Hendra Winata, “ Terorisme itu Kejahatan Luar Biasa” , Kompas Cyber Media, 11 September 2004, www.kompas.com. Diakses tanggal 25 April 2008.
 Dafri Agussalim, “ Mencari Cara Memerangi Terorisme”, Kompas Cyber Media, Kamis 23 Agustus 2003 www.kompas.com . Diakses tanggal 25 April 2008.
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